American Indians and World War II: toward a new era in by Alison R. Bernstein

By Alison R. Bernstein

The impression of global warfare II on Indian affairs was once extra profound and lasting than that of the other occasion or policy--including Roosevelt’s Indian New Deal and efforts to terminate federal accountability for tribes below Eisenhower. concentrating on the interval from 1941 to 1947, Alison R. Bernstein explains why termination and tribal self-determination have been logical result of the Indians’ global warfare II studies in conflict and at the domestic entrance.

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Extra info for American Indians and World War II: toward a new era in Indian affairs

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27 Census figures only enumer- Page 11 ated "legal" Indiansthose Indians living on or near reservations served by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. In 1940 the bureau claimed that the "legal" Indian population under its jurisdiction totaled 360,500 persons. 03 percent of the total population of the United States. It did not, however, take into account Indians of mixed racial backgrounds who did not appear on tribal rolls or in the files of local Indian agencies. The BIA did not recognize any responsibility for these Indians.

30 While the Indian population was growing, the percentage of fullblooded Indians seemed to be decreasing. 4 percent of the total in 1940. 31 In a paper on "The Mixed-Blood Indian," H. L. "32 Shapiro felt the role of the federal government in the future should be to assist biologically assimilated Indians to become sociologically assimilated. Shapiro and others pointed out that there appeared to be a relationship between mixed-blood marriages and the physical location of tribes. Mixed-blood Indians were proportionately more numerous in the eastern, Pacific coast, and midwestern states, where contact with whites dated further back and where Indians live in small aggregations.

By 1940 over $5 million in loans to Indian tribes, corporations, and individuals had been made. Collier set aside wilderness areas for exclusive Indian use. When the Flathead Indians were in danger of losing their right to develop a power site on their land, Collier obtained an interview with Attorney General Homer Cummings and pressed him to investigate the claims of the non-Indian Montana Power company to develop the site. He also aided the Crow and the Sioux in their efforts to obtain buffalo from the National Park Service.

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