All Possible Worlds: A History of Geographical Ideas, 4th by Geoffrey J. Martin

By Geoffrey J. Martin

Up-to-date and revised to incorporate theoretical and different advancements, bibliographical additions, new pictures and illustrations, and multiplied identify and topic indexes, the fourth variation of All attainable Worlds: A heritage of Geographical Ideas is the main whole and entire publication of its style. The textual content additionally incorporates a format and clarity that make the fabric effortless to navigate and understand.

The ebook investigates the ways that the topic of geography has been well-known, perceived, and evaluated, from its early acknowledgment in historical Greece to its disciplined shape in brand new international of shared principles and mass conversation. powerful continuities knit the Classical interval to the Age of Exploration, then hold scholars on via Varenius to Humboldt and Ritter--revealing the emergence of "the new geography" of the fashionable Period.

The heritage of yank geography--developed in seven of the twenty chapters--is strongly emphasised pursuant to the formal origins of geography in overdue nineteenth-century Germany, Darwin's idea of evolution, and the nice Surveys of the yank West. This remedy is stronger through chapters pertaining to parallel histories of geography in Germany, France, nice Britain, Russia (including the USSR and CIS), Canada, Sweden, and Japan-countries that in the first place contributed to and later borrowed from the physique people geographical thought.

All attainable Worlds: A heritage of Geographical Ideas, Fourth variation, is perfect for upper-level undergraduate or graduate classes within the historical past and philosophy of classical, medieval, and sleek geographical thought.

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Extra info for All Possible Worlds: A History of Geographical Ideas, 4th Edition

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It was Posidonius who estimated the circumference of the earth and arrived at a much smaller figure than that of Eratosthenes. Because he felt no confidence in the work of Eratosthenes, he undertook to make his own measurements. He observed the height above the horizon of Canopus (a star of the first magnitude) at Rhodes and Alexandria, which he assumed to be on the same meridian. He then estimated the distance between them based on average sailing time for ships. The figure he arrived at for the circumference of the earth was 18,000 miles.

He accepts Aristotle’s zones of habitability, as defined by Eratosthenes, and then goes on to assert that the limit of possible human life toward the equator is at latitude 12°30/N— on what basis he does not say. He also places the northern limit of the habitable earth, where cold is the limiting factor, only 400 miles north of the Black Sea. No one can really be civilized if he lives north of the Alps in Europe because it is necessary to huddle around fires just to keep alive. He accepts the calculation of the earth’s circumfer­ ence made by Posidonius.

The contrast in the approaches of these scholars of Miletus more than 24 centuries ago illustrates the apparent dichotomy between those who seek to formulate generalizations and those who seek to describe unique things. ). ). But his world history meant writing a world geography; the two tasks were inextricably linked. ###$#*14 '■ morni•ntnowni«* ■ Figure 3 The world according to Ptolemy, according to Hecataeus, and according Eratosthenes The Beginnings of Classical Geography / 21 had visited and the people whose customs he had observed and recorded.

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