By Michael Quinten
A one-stop, concise consultant on choosing and measuring skinny movie thickness by way of optical methods.
This functional ebook covers the legislation of electromagnetic radiation and interplay of sunshine with topic, in addition to the idea and perform of thickness size, and glossy functions. In so doing, it exhibits the functions and possibilities of optical thickness selection and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of dimension units in addition to their assessment methods.
Following an creation to the subject, bankruptcy 2 offers the fundamentals of the propagation of sunshine and different electromagnetic radiation in house and subject. the most subject of this e-book, the decision of the thickness of a layer in a layer stack by way of measuring the spectral reflectance or transmittance, is taken care of within the following 3 chapters. the colour of skinny layers is mentioned in bankruptcy 6. ultimately, in bankruptcy 7, the writer discusses a number of commercial purposes of the layer thickness size, together with high-reflection and anti-reflection coatings, photolithographic structuring of semiconductors, silicon on insulator, obvious conductive movies, oxides and polymers, skinny movie photovoltaics, and seriously doped silicon.
Aimed at business and educational researchers, engineers, builders and brands all for all components of optical layer and skinny optical movie dimension and metrology, technique keep watch over, real-time tracking, and applications.
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Additional info for A Practical Guide to Optical Metrology for Thin Films
This layer was treated incoherently, for which no thickness interference is observable. Optical constants from Ref. . the order of 70–80%. Note that for calculation of R and Tof this thin ﬁlm, we assumed the layer to be incoherent, that is, no thickness interference occurs. Another selected example is the metal Al. An outstanding property of this metal is that its dielectric function can be approximated rather well by a Drude dielectric constant for free electrons, and it also exhibits an interband transition around 800 nm wavelength.
Usually, it is ambient air with n1 ¼ 1. Light passing through this grating will be diffracted by the periodic structure but the partial waves will have additional phase shifts exp(ikn1d) and exp(ikn2d) due to the fact that they pass either the grooves or the bulk material. Therefore, we have for the magnitude of electric ﬁeld of the wave diffracted into the diffraction angle b: EðbÞ ¼ E0 Á GF Á 8 < : ðb að þb expðikn1 dÞ expðikx sinðbÞÞdx þ expðikn2 dÞ 0 9 = expðikx sinðbÞÞdx ; ; b ð2:66Þ where the abbreviation GF stands again for the grating function.
38]. As the imaginary part e2 of the dielectric function is zero and hence also k ¼ 0 for all wavelengths in this wavelength range, this material is transparent. The high refractive index of n > 2 results from strong interband transitions in the UV spectral range that can be described by harmonic oscillators (Brendel oscillators). Si3N4 is often used as antireﬂective coating for silicon wafer in photovoltaics or as hard coat for protection of surfaces. The high refractive index also causes a high reﬂectance of a wafer of 1 mm thickness of R > 20% (including rear side reﬂection).