By Stephen Tanner
Following the occasions of September eleven, 2001, the realm used to be riveted as American army energy contested the mythical warrior tradition of Afghanistan. via spring 2002, the US started to draw down its forces, its challenge finished: The Afghan Taliban regime has been overthrown and the terrorists it harbored have been at the run. was once America's effortless victory facts of its army superiority, or have been the Afghans basically eyeing the beginners as they've got watched overseas armies in centuries earlier, figuring out time is on their side?For over 2,500 years, the forbidding territory of Afghanistan has served as an important crossroads--not only for armies yet for clashes among civilizations--the Greeks, Arabs, Mongols, and Tartars, and in additional contemporary instances, Britain and Russia. Now the United States needs to face a brand new enemy in this land--a land that for hundreds of years has develop into a graveyard of empires past.This first-ever entire army historical past of Afghanistan illuminates the huge old context into which American forces were drawn--a cautionary story, might be, concerning the risks which may lie forward.
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Extra resources for Afghanistan: A Military History From Alexander The Great To The Fall Of The Taliban
As the Macedonians churned through the Greeks and his guard, he opted to survive. He fled the field. Once the Great King had gone, the Greek mercenaries were in a terrible position. They had maintained the center, but now the Macedonians were behind them to their left. Their line bent, then wavered, and finally broke apart. They had to run. On the Persian right it soon became apparent the rest of the army was in retreat and these troops, too, gave up the battle. At Issus, the Macedonians were able to chop up the retreating army, partly because the Persian cavalry—the last to flee—trampled their own foot troops, and in the narrow defiles that offered escape from the plain the losers of the engagement became jammed.
The Great King was found in a wagon, bound in gold chains and stabbed to death with javelins. Two dead slaves and one live pet dog were beside him. This was a severe blow to Alexander, to the degree that he craved legitimacy as well as power. Inheriting the empire from a pitifully murdered king was more an insult than a boon. Of course, that is exactly why the Great King—seen as a spent force and in any event a loser—was killed by his erstwhile loyalists. The nobles of Bactria and the East no longer desired to be tied to Darius's fortune; and if Alexander wished to keep marching, he would have to proceed against them, not the ill-fated Great King.
Two dead slaves and one live pet dog were beside him. This was a severe blow to Alexander, to the degree that he craved legitimacy as well as power. Inheriting the empire from a pitifully murdered king was more an insult than a boon. Of course, that is exactly why the Great King—seen as a spent force and in any event a loser—was killed by his erstwhile loyalists. The nobles of Bactria and the East no longer desired to be tied to Darius's fortune; and if Alexander wished to keep marching, he would have to proceed against them, not the ill-fated Great King.