A Unitary Principle of Optics, Catoptrics, and Dioptrics by Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm

By Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm

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970s bu� dId not think the dark lane was viSIble WIth an 8-znch. Now the dark lane could be seen at 117x and 188X by several observers easily (no a �erted vision) . The galaxy is about 11 arc-mznutes long, extend­ ing northwest to southeast. The boundaries oj the arms are jairly sharp, except at the tips where they fade slowly into the sky background. 5 arc-minutes); the long axis is aligned with the arms. The edges of the hub fade first slowly, then quickly into the sky background. 4 mm Erfle at 188X , in which the galaxy extends over the whole field.

7). 2) where D is expressed in millimeters. This formula was used to list the ideal limiting magnitudes for telescopes of various aper­ tures in Table 4 . 1 . 3) where m is the magnification . This is why magnification helps to detect faint stars when the sky is bright, or even under dark country skies compared to when low power is used. High magnification also increases the appa­ rent angle between field stars. Consider a dark country sky with a surface brightness of 24 magnitudes per square arc­ second.

They were plotted from gathered by Hoag et al. ( 1961) and are in two charts per cluster: one with stars and on the facing page, the cluster with magnitudes given to the tenth with the cimal point omitted ( 1 29 is magnitude I Also given are the plate scale and the . distance from the book to show how the ter will appear at various Sparsely populated clusters were chosen brighter field stars do not interfere. C that have very bright members, such as Pleiades, are not included since these . fere severely with viewing the fainter bers.

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