By Oscar W. Gabriel (auth.), Oscar W. Gabriel, Vincent Hoffmann-Martinot, Hank V. Savitch (eds.)
Der Band enthält eine Bestandsaufnahme der Struktur und Entwicklung großstädtischer Demokratien im Übergang zur postindustriellen Gesellschaft. Im Mittelpunkt steht die Frage, in welcher Weise der Strukturwandel der westlichen Gesellschaften die Einflußverteilung zwischen der Bevölkerung, den Institutionen des Interessenvermittlungssystems und den lokalen Eliten beeinflußt hat.
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G. indirectly elected bodies for inter-municipal cooperation in performing specific tasks. From a formal point of view, then, there is no doubt that local government at both levels are creatures of the state and - at least in theory - subject to whatever decisions national authorities make, including amalgamations. g. Page and Goldsmith 1988). The institution of local government itself is granted - although in somewhat general terms - by the constitutions of Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Only in Norway, with its constitution of 1814, and municipal acts of 1837, this is not the case.
In all the other large Norwegian cities, the executive is formed on a proportional basis. Due to the discretion given to local agencies by the 1993 act, the structure is not similar in any of them. All have a number of politicians working full time in addition to the mayor (Bergen 12; Trondheim 8; Stavanger 5). These politicians belong to both majority and minority parties. In Bergen, members from the majority parties hold all the committee leadership positions, whereas this is not the case in Trondheim.
At the same time, these four cities dominate their regions in terms of population in a much higher degree than what Copenhagen does in its metropolitan region. Part of the integration tasks that exist in the Copenhagen region therefore can 58 Henry Back/Falke JahanssoniHelge 0. Larsen be regarded as internalized by the core cities in the Helsinki, Goteborg, Malmo and Oslo regions. 6. 1 Participation at the municipal level We will start by discussing a basic social prerequisite for political participation: organizational activity.