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Extra info for A History of the Crusades, Volume IV: The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States (Art & Architecture of the Crusader States)
Hatem, p. 298. , p. 296. 22 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES IV use ... uo On the other hand, Usamah thinks that these westerners domesticated in Syria are much superior to their confreres. He knew of one who had Egyptian women doing his cooking and who ate no pork. 151 Humphrey II of Toron's son had a perfect command of Arabic, and served as interpreter between Richard and Saladin. Of course, any influence of the Holy Land on Europe was minimized by the fact that those who knew Arabic well usually stayed in the east; those who went back to France and England knew the least_ The casual pilgrim who passed through under arms seeking his palm must have carried home with him "horrible," or perhaps "gilded," impressions of a fleeting nature.
36 For a little while these Moslem coins were actually imitated by the Venetians, who had their authorized mints (zecche) in Acre, Tripoli, and Tyre (after 1124). At Tyre in 1127 they began to make Christian imitations of the Moslem dinar, called besanz saracinois au poi3 de Tyr; the Moslems called them diniir SurP 7 These Venetian imitations were modeled after the Fa~imid dinar of·al-Amir (1101-1130). This minting of Moslem imita· tions by Christians was considered a scandal in the mid-thirteenth century.
4298-4303; cf. Uslimah, p. 94. 137. Uslimah, p. 167. /tinerarium, p. 349. 139. Ambrose, p. " 140. Hatem, p. 300. •' ·. Ch. I LIFE AMONG THE EUROPEANS IN PALESTINE AND SYRIA 21 Roman de Renart which was composed for a similar purpose. " Refrains were composed exalting prowess. When Richard was leaving for home people stood around and recited his deeds of valor and largesse; perhaps these were cantilenae, sung by women. 141 Ambrose speaks of something "since the days of Roland and OHver," which presupposes familiarity with the Chanson de Roland.