By J. Dennis Lawrence

Suitable for college students and researchers in geometry and machine technology, the textual content starts by way of introducing basic houses of curves and kinds of derived curves. next chapters observe those homes to conics and polynomials, cubic and quartic curves, algebraic curves of excessive measure, and transcendental curves. a complete of greater than 60 designated curves are featured, every one illustrated with a number of CalComp plots containing curves in as much as 8 various variations. Indexes supply tables of derived curves, curve names, and a 95-item advisor to extra reading.

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I hope you enjoy this book, which is one of several books that I have written. com/science Introducing Platonic Solids Platonic solids are 3-dimensional shapes whose faces are all the same size and shape. There are 5 Platonic solids: Regular tetrahedron (also known as "triangular pyramid") - A shape with 4 faces, each face being a triangle Regular octahedron (also known as "square bipyramid") – A shape with 8 faces, each face being a triangle Regular icosahedron – A shape with 20 faces, each face being a triangle Regular hexahedron (also known as "cube") – A shape with 6 faces, each face being a square Regular dodecahedron – A shape with 12 faces, each face being a pentagon In the next chapter, we will develop a more rigorous mathematical definition of Platonic solids, and see what links these particular 5 shapes – and no others.

Finally, a convex polyhedron is one in which any two points inside the shape can be joined by a straight line segment that itself does not go outside the shape. So, for example: A cube would be convex, because any two points inside the cube can be linked by a straight line which does not emerge from the cube. A square pyramid would be convex,, because any two points inside the pyramid can be linked by a straight line which does not emerge from the pyramid. A triangular prism would be convex,, because any two points inside the prism can be linked by a straight line which does not emerge from the prism.

It can be calculated using this formula: The dihedral angle can also be calculated using this formula: where h (known as the Coxeter number) is 4 for a tetrahedron, 6 for a hexahedron or octahedron, and 10 for a tetrahedron or icosahedron. The angular deficiency, usually denoted by the symbol δ, is the difference between the sum of the face angles and 2π. However there is also a simpler formula for δ. French mathematician and philosopher René Descartes (March 31st, 1596 to February 11th, 1650) showed that the total angular deficiency will always be 4π, hence: where V is the total number of vertices in the Platonic solid.